Michael Eriksson's Blog

A Swede in Germany

Posts Tagged ‘justice

A few points concerning the movie “Anon”

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I recently watched the movie “Anon”, which follows a police detective working in a police system (and society in general) highly dependent on implants that capture and modify the visual* impressions of the populace—like a mixture of “built-in” smart glasses and some of my own satiric suggestions ([1]).

*I am uncertain to what degree other senses were involved.

While the movie as a whole is not that great, it demonstrates several conceivable future dangers.

Of these the possibly most noteworthy are those present in [1]—or how a state like that could come into being*: Take “smart glasses”, make it an implant, connect it to the cloud, allow the police increasingly greater access to that cloud or even the implants themselves, and a nightmare scenario could very easily manifest it self.

*The movie it self gives no (in universe) historical background; however, the speculation is fairly obvious.

Another issue touched upon repeatedly in my own writings is the low value of digital evidence: Whatever is stored*, transmitted, replayed, …, digitally can be manipulated, usually very easily, in order to give an incorrect impression. This applies not just to obvious items, e.g. entries in the access log of a server or the presence of illegal contents on a private hard-drive, but increasingly extends even to e.g. video capture**. Even the (extraordinarily naive and absolutely intolerable) assumption that law-enforcement personnel would never manipulate evidence is not enough to remedy this problem, nor is the strictest tracking*** by “chain of evidence”, because there is no guarantee that manipulations have not taken place through a third party.

*There is an availability of write-only storage that to some degree could remedy this. However, this presumes that write-only storage actually is used (which can be impractical for e.g. cost reasons and the inability to re-use storage); does not help against manipulations during retrieval of the data; and can be circumvented by simply copying the one write-only storage unit to an identical unit, making only the wanted modifications, and then proclaiming the modified copy to be the original.

**To achieve sufficiently high-quality manipulations or forgeries today is rarely practical. However, at the rate CGI has advanced over the years, we will eventually (likely: soon) reach a point where anyone with even a semi-powerful enemy could be at risk. (Whether we ever reach a state where a single skilled individual can achieve this with at most a few hours work, as implied in the movie, I leave unstated. However, given enough time, that too might be the case.)

***Especially since such tracking would almost certainly be largely digital…

Anonymity and privacy, even outside police work, is another important theme (as might be surmised from the title): Walking along a street and being able to see the names, occupations, whatnot of the other pedestrians might be interesting and useful—but the same applies in reverse. I, myself, certainly would not be comfortable with that. Extrapolate it a bit further, and assume that (drawing on the current U.S.) someone who once was caught peeing in the park has a “sex offender” sign displayed over his head, or that (drawing on Nazi-Germany) Jews, homosexuals, whatnot come with their own warning signs. What if a direct connection with e.g. a Facebook account is made, and passers-by can extract almost arbitrary information, e.g relationship status, at will? Recall e.g. a recent assault over a mistaken identity; or note how easy it is for someone rooting for the wrong team or supporting the wrong party to be beaten up, if encountering the wrong crowd—or consider how information on income can affect the risk of being robbed or pick-pocketed.

From another perspective, consider the ability to replay the capture of previous sights—including e.g. love making. We could argue that that which we have once seen should be ours to see again—and I would mostly agree. However, it is easy to find special cases where this is highly disputable, e.g. when someone accidentally walks in on someone else who is having sex or otherwise being naked: It would not be unreasonable for the observed party to demand a deletion. Certainly, a kept recording might give far greater opportunity of observing details than the original (typically) brief flash. Similarly, there is a wide consensus that filming sex with a partner without consent is unacceptable—but what happens when everyone has a built-in camera? To boot, others can wish for even stricter criteria—I have, e.g., seen the opinion (but disagree) that even consensually filmed material must be destroyed after a break-up or that voluntarily given intimate images must be returned.

These problems are by no means limited to physical acts and nakedness: Consider e.g. the ban on cameras (including on cell-phones and notebooks) in many offices and factories. Or consider someone having a private conversation on which a third-party can now far more easily listen in*.

*An early scene showed even the near-inaudible dialogue of some passers-by being translated directly to text.

Alternatively, consider the invasion of privacy implied by a spouse’s or parent’s request to see a certain section of recording (“Where were you last night?!?”)*: Show it and lose privacy; do not show it and the worst will be suspected. (A similar situation is discussed in a text on lies under oath.) An interesting twist is provided by two (real life) parents who are repeatedly in the news for trying to get access to a deceased daughter’s Facebook account: What if this scenario is replaced by parents/spouses/children/whatnot who gain access to their deceased children’s/spouses’/parents’/whatnot implant data, including extensive recordings?

*It is my strong personal belief that even children relative their parents and spouses relative each other have a right to a considerably degree of privacy; however, even those who do not (e.g. an over-protective parent or a wife who fails to understand that the members of a couple are still different people) must realize that there can be areas where a legitimate need for such privacy can exist: Not everything that the one party wants to keep secret is necessarily harmful to the other, morally wrong, or susceptible to the (pseudo-)argument “the innocent have nothing to fear”. Consider e.g. a husband giving a female friend some help strictly for reasons of friendship, and a wife who has a history of jumping to (incorrect) conclusions about cheating.

Then again, we have anonymity (respectively lack thereof) in the frame of police work. I have earlier (notably in [2]) objected to e.g. computer searches for reasons like the presence of highly personal material and private information, as well as the risk that material that in theory would only be accessed by the police might leak out. What if the information collected includes basically everything seen or done by someone? (Including sex acts, intimate conversations, confidential business meetings, …)

Then there is the issue of hacking and security: Not only does this provide yet another channel through which private information can leak, but it also adds the risk of damaging interventions. For instance, the movie showed examples of visual input being sufficiently manipulated, in real time, that the victim could not rely on his eye sight. With this level of technology, it would be easy to e.g. have someone just walk into oncoming traffic. However, even with abilities more realistic by today’s standards, great harm can be caused, e.g. by having textual information altered to imply that another party is sleeping with the own spouse. Looking at self-driving cars, with similar vulnerabilities and a greater current realism, we could have a hostile entity manipulate a car into taking actions that lead to a car crash, a run-over pedestrian, or some other calamity. (See also e.g. [3].)

On the other hand, if external access is technically and legally sufficiently limited, there can be a great upside to some of the technologies. Consider e.g. re-running a business meeting or a lecture to refresh a failing memory; re-living an enjoyable moment; or (most enticing to me) re-visiting a portion of prior life to have another look at how things were back then or how one has developed or not developed, what lessons can be drawn and what could have been done differently, etc.

As an aside, it is depressing that while we live in a time when privacy and anonymity are more urgent than ever before (for the simple reason that they are so much easier to violate), legislation and other “government behavior” shows a broad trend towards weakening both. The fear of terrorism and organized crime makes this partially understandable; but not only do the “big bads” have far greater means to circumvent such legislation than the average citizen, the measures are often obviously intended against crimes of any kind. Both these factors point strongly towards the damage done being greater than the benefits gained. What we need is the reverse trend—and this not only with regard to the government, but also to strengthen protection against e.g. profile-building private enterprises, for instance by making it possible to order even physical to-be-delivered goods (close to) anonymously and by removing antiquated laws like the German requirement for a hotel guest to register with full and real name and address.

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Written by michaeleriksson

June 30, 2018 at 12:17 am

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American Vandal

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I have just watched the first season* of “American Vandal”—another proof that it is possible to do something original and worth watching even today, and that there is no need to just dust of every old franchise**, hoping that the “brand value” outweighs the lack of quality and originality.

*Whether this terminology reflects reality remains to be seen. From the closed character, I suspect that the series will remain at one season, and considering its shortness, it might be better labeled as a “mini-series”.

**Something I have spoken negatively of in the past, e.g. in [1].

It is not the best made series ever—not even close. However, it does bring something new to the table, and it does so while giving food for thought. This most notably in the area of due process, but also concerning privacy, the benefits and dangers of social media, press ethics, and organizations sweeping their problems under the rug—all areas where I have considerable concerns about current developments. (Cf. a number of older posts.) Some of these areas are discussed below.

!!!Here be spoilers!!!

A particular disturbing part, obviously, is how one character, Dylan, was originally expelled from school based on scant* evidence, by an entity that served as judge, jury, and prosecutor in one, and how his “conviction” was almost a foregone conclusion based on his previous behavior**. While this example is fictional, it does reflect common practices in the U.S., where there, for instance, have been cases of colleges expelling people under similar circumstances, often in word-against-word situations, using “preponderance of evidence” (or another too weak standard). Considering the effects of a college*** expulsion and the damage than can accrue through e.g. social media and reputation damage in today’s world, the consequences are potentially horrifying—often far worse than the alleged crime or even “crime”. When it comes to actual crimes****, it is vital that proceedings follow a level of due process, rights of the accused, whatnot, that is comparable to that of a real criminal trial—better yet, leave this to the actual justice system, and then make decisions, e.g. regarding expulsions, based on what the results of the justice system were. Even when no crime is present (e.g. with a pure behavioral matter), it is vital that the (real or virtual) roles of judge, jury, and prosecutor are sufficiently separated from each other, and that the “accused” is given sufficient opportunity to defend himself.

*The only evidence against him that was not, at best, circumstantial was a testimony by a witness, which was offset by conflicting testimony by an alibi giver. Neither witness had any obviously superior credibility.

**Dylan was a highly problematic student, and I do not rule out that his past behavior might have been enough for an expulsion. However, he was, as eventually transpired, innocent of the vandalism for which he actually was expelled.

***However, note that the series deals with a high-school expulsion. This is bad enough, but less disastrous both because there are more opportunities to gain back ground and (usually far, far) less money invested at the particular school. To boot, people who are expelled from high-school are rarely among those likely to do well in college, implying that the career effect is considerably smaller: We are still typically talking unemployment and/or low-wage, dead-end jobs, considering the low value of a modern high-school diploma.

****As was the case here, specifically the spray painting of 27 cars with stylized penises.

A somewhat tricky question in the series is that of false accusations—paralleling the considerable problems in the real world with especially, rape, child-abuse, and domestic-violence accusations: While Dylan was originally expelled and facing (real) criminal and/or civil charges*, the “witness for the prosecution”**, who seemed*** to have lied outright, did not face such repercussions—his sole fear being a beating from Dylan. It is possible that any attempt at action against him would eventually have failed due to problems of proving intent; however, it appears that an attempt was not even made. Similarly, in the real world, women who make false rape accusations are often let go with a slap on the wrist, while their victims could have faced many years in jail—and often see their lives ruined even when acquitted. Under such circumstances, there is a severe risk that the system is abused e.g. to maliciously hurt personal enemies who have not committed a crime.

*He was proved innocent by video evidence before the real trial in the real justice system started.

**Whether he should be considered the accuser or just a witness can be disputed, but from the details of the show, the difference is likely uninteresting for the current discussion. (However, in most other cases, witness and accuser are quite different things.)

***At least for some time: A later hypothesis involved a suspect with some similarity in looks, and assuming, as was claimed, that the perpetrator wore a hood, an honest mistake is conceivable. However, this hypothesis only arose some time after the “acquittal”, was not necessarily presented to the school, and certainly remained a hypothesis. To boot, the witness had originally spoken with considerable certainty. (I do not recall the exact formulations used, but it was on the level of “I saw Dylan do it”—not e.g. “I saw who did it; he looked like Dylan”.

As a counter-point, we have the question of witness pressure: The “witness for the prosecution” later spoke of having been under a lot of pressure to say the right things. If that was the case, and if he modified his statements to comply with the pressure, someone of his age should be seen in a more forgiving light. However, we then have to condemn the proceedings even more: Witnesses are unreliable enough as it is and when they additionally face pressure to give the “right” answers, testimony is worth very little. It is vital that witnesses are induced to say what they actually remember—not directly or indirectly moved to say what the prosecution wants to hear. Here we again see the importance of dividing the roles of the “court” appropriately, so that the prosecution is neither judge nor jury. Further, where there is a prosecutor to exert pressure on witnesses, there must be a defender to press back. In this specific case, we had the additional complication that the witness was another student, and therefore in a dependent role visa vi the school staff making the decisions, implying that thoughts like “I must keep Mrs. X happy, or she might give me a poor grade!” could have crossed his mind. Such problems could have been alleviated by hiring external specialists to handle the investigation and decision. Consider as comparison a real trial where a witness is employed as a house-keeper by the DA handling the case…

The problem of organizations sweeping their problems under the rug, has probably not featured in my previous writings to any notable degree. A few words on the topic*: There are many types of problems that can arise when there is too little distance, objectivity, self-criticism, whatnot, present in how an organization deals with complaints and internal problems. The most obvious is that it might be so keen on preserving its imagine towards the outside world that it deliberately does not address problems in the appropriate manner. However, we also have to consider constellations like a superior receiving a complaint about an employee with whom he has developed a friendship, an investigative board containing people with personal ties, a biased treatment due to the feeling that that the target of a complaint is “one of us” and the complainer is “one of them”, the target of the complaint being able to influence the proceedings through inside connections (e.g. through giving someone false verbal information that the complainer never even knows of, let alone has an opportunity to refute), etc.

*Since I am filling a deficit, I will remain mostly abstract. If we look at events in the series, I can point to e.g. the illegal failure to upload certain complaint acts to a public server, an attempt to shut-down an independent investigation/documentary, when it threatened to put the school and/or some staff members in a poor light, suspensions (detentions?) being handed out for potentially (depending on interpretation) having critized the principal, …

A particular disastrous example from my personal experiences, where problems were almost guaranteed and remedies highly unlikely due to a massive conflict of interest: Being faced with a blatant breach of contract, I simultaneously sent a bill to the perpetrator and contacted its trade association with a complaint and a request for intervention. In a horribly misguided system, this trade association on the one hand provided arbitration, certifications of quality, and similar, on the other legal service to its members. The result was that the perpetrator took the bill, sent it to the legal branch of the trade association, which immediately gave the opinion that the bill was void and all related claims baseless*—and thereby tied the hands of the rest of the organization with regard to my complaint and any chance of intervention—if another branch had given support to my complaint, it could have caused severe credibility problems for the legal branch, had I taken legal action to receive payment.

*Beware that such “opinions”, by their very nature, have no actual legal value, give little information on the true estimation of the involved lawyers, and cannot, seeing that the lawyers at this juncture only know a fraction of the information, be a complete legal evaluation. To act in his client’s best interest, a lawyer will have to officially side with said client in a near blanket manner, even when the facts at hand, relevant law, and his actual opinion would go in the other direction. There are cases where the situation is so clear, that he is forced to chose another first official stance than a (real or metaphorical) “not guilty”; however, this is rare. The result is that irrespective of how well or poorly founded the complaining party’s claims are, the legal branch would have started with a blanket rejection, and the hands of the trade association would be tied. The complaining party is, almost by necessity, wasting time by approaching such a trade association.

Correspondingly, any organization who wants its complaint management to be taken seriously, must take steps to minimize such problems (a complete prevention is likely not possible). This could include e.g. making sure that there is a special complaints branch, that supervisors/investigators/whatnot with too strong ties to the target of the complaint recuse themselves, that external helpers are brought in (especially when larger amounts of money are concerned, the heads of the organization are involved, or the matter is otherwise unusually important), … While the presumption of innocence must be preserved in terms of treatment and consequences, the potential guilt must also be kept very clearly in mind during any investigation.

(A more specialized post on the misbehavior of German governmental institutions and their blanket rejection of any type of criticism might follow, especially with an eye on the IRS, the incompetence of which is currently again costing me a load of time. It appears to be a universal law that the more incompetent an organization is, the less willing it is to accept criticism.)

A few words on the final scenes of the series:
After his acquittal, Dylan goes through a brief high and then faces repeated disappointments, including that a very hostile* teacher, who had pushed heavily against him, and even (very incorrectly) attributed the crime as directed mainly against her, personally, failed to give the type of apology that he had pictured. He now misguidedly does commit an act of vandalism against her, by painting a penis on her drive-way.

*Her hostility is not unreasonable, considering their previous history.

It follows a brief sequence on how the expectations of others, the roles we have been pushed into, and similar, can lead to poor decisions, even deliberate attempts to fulfill negative expectations—Dylan thought that others saw him as a villain and correspondingly behaved like a villain. While this is likely only partially true, there are at least two thought-worthy aspects to this issue. Firstly, that we should be careful with our expectations of others and the effects they can, at least sometimes, have. Secondly, that we should beware of potential influence from others through expectations, that we should deliberately counter such expectations (at least when negative), and that we ultimately must take responsibility for our own actions, even if they arose under such influence.

In a disturbing parallel to a recently discussed real case, it is claimed that the police brought him away in handcuffs in the middle of the night, over something as trivial* as a this. Now, I do not know whether this could have happened in the real world; however, I re-iterate how important it is that law enforcement act in proportion to the crime. Not only could this easily have waited until the following morning, it might even have been prudent to just ask him to come to the station at a given time. While I do not agree with the practice of some law enforcements** of letting all crimes below a certain level just slide, this is one case where the main issue might even be considered a civil matter between the two: He pays damages, apologizes, promises to never do it again, and we call it a day.

*To be contrasted with the original vandalism, were a figure of a hundred thousand dollars of damages was mentioned. In the act he actually committed, the cost of cleaning or repairing the drive-way is unlikely to exceed a few hundred dollars, possibly being far smaller.

**Including, in my impression, the German police.

Written by michaeleriksson

May 30, 2018 at 5:26 am

A few more thoughts on lies under oath

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A recent post ([1]) of mine contained a brief discussion of lies under oath and similar circumstances*, especially with the claim that the accused** should be given some leeway to lie, not just to refuse a statement. Having run this through my head a few times since then, especially while writing [2], a few additional points:

*There are plenty of cases in various jurisdictions where telling a lie is punishable even with no oath present. For the sake of simplicity, I will speak just of “oath” below; however, most of what is said will apply with no, or very little, change to such other situations. Similarly, I will focus on criminal trials below, but at least some of the contents will generalize to other contexts. Notably, if someone is sued for civil damages over a killing (as e.g. OJ Simpson), he must have sufficiently similar rights, lest the civil case forces an incrimination that makes his rights during a criminal trial moot. (However, a more general right to lie during a civil suit should not be inferred: The clear majority of civil suits will give no defensible reason for a lie.)

**I stress that this is not extended to the accuser, be he a claimed victim or a prosecutor, who is in a very different position. Further, that an extension, if any, to witnesses would be restricted to the protection of the accused and others (including the witness, himself) who might be quasi-accused through a truthful statement, with very considerable other restrictions applying. For instance, a mere “he is my friend and I want him to go free” would not be enough motivation to justify a lie; in contrast, the “Jewish friend” example from [1] would. An example like “I did not do it; Y did” shows why I do not give even the accused free reign, just “some leeway”. (But I have not thought this area through sufficiently to give a suggestion for an explicit set of rules. A particular complication is that such rules would likely involve the “justness” of laws involved; with the secondary complications that this area is somewhat subjective and that the justice system will typically consider all laws just or to-be-obeyed-irrespective-of-justness in a blanket manner—even when it comes to e.g. violations of international norms or commonly accepted human rights.)

It is tempting to take the view that if lying is not allowed, trials become that much easier: Confront the defendant with a point-blank question and he will now either confess and we are three-quarters done, or he will reject the accusation and, should he have lied, face harder punishment than if he had told the truth. With sufficiently harder punishment, the guilty will have a strong incentive to tell the truth. There are several problems with this, however, including:

  1. That a confession is not necessarily truthful. For one thing, we have situations like Sture Bergwall (cf. [2]); for another, we replicate the problems around U.S. plea bargains*, if the additional punishment for lying under oath is severe enough (and if it is not, the system will not work anyway): Some, possibly many, innocents will proclaim themselves guilty in order to reduce the potential punishment, especially when they know that the risk of conviction is large**.

    *These come quite close to the above situation, the main difference being that a “rebate” is offered to those who confess, rather than a punishment extended to those who do not.

    **Note that this can be the case even for the innocent, be it through misleading evidence, a prejudiced jury, or some other circumstance.

  2. That a question could be (deliberately or accidentally) constructed to remove the possibility of expressing mitigating circumstances, be misunderstood by the accused through an imperfect understanding of legal terminology or the laws involved, or otherwise be causing a misleading answer. Consider e.g. the question “Did you in cold blood put the gun against the victim’s head and press the trigger? Yes or no!”: If that is what happened, the answer must be “yes”; however, central points of the longer answer “yes—but he told me that the gun was not loaded” are lost. Even if someone deliberately tried to construct a fair question, or even set of questions, chances are that he would fail.*

    *I am beginning to suspect that similar complications have contributed to the plea system: We start with an abstract plea of “innocent”/“guilty”/whatnot and use the trial to elaborate on the defense’s view (as well as the prosecution’s, etc.), because it is not normally realistic to present this view as the response to a single question. (In my first draft, I listed an “almost invalidation of the plea system” as one of the items speaking against the type of “point-blank question” discussed here, the two being similar in general principle but potentially very different in details and implications. However, by now I suspect that if the “point-blank question” was tried, it would actually, over time, evolve into some variation of a claim of “innocent”/“guilty” with an ensuing interactive elaboration, which basically brings us back to a plea system or something very similar.)

  3. This would severely reduce the possibility for citizens to cope with unjust laws and unjustly large punishments, say regarding a ban of certain political opinions.
  4. The question of who determines the truth grows even larger than it is today, with ample room for abuse, be it through incompetence or malice. View the courtroom scenes from “Pleasantville” for a good example of the potential problems.
  5. Not every faulty claim is actually a lie, and a rule like this could lead to punishment for accidental errors: If the matter seemed too unimportant at the time (e.g. because it did not occur to the perpetrator that his actions could be illegal), if too much time has passed, if the original situation was too stressful, or similar, it is quite possible that someone would be honestly unaware of, or have honestly misunderstood the implications of, an act that he actually committed.

On the other hand, we could have a possible credibility* issue: The point of taking an oath to tell the truth is the implied greater credibility, ideally to the point that whatever is said can be taken to be truth. Allowing lies would obviously reduce this credibility, doing more harm than good to the actually innocent. However, outside of times where people honestly feared divine punishment for violating oaths*, the actual gain in credibility is likely quite low as it is. To boot, it is well-known that memory imperfections and influenceability make most people poor witnesses—even when they do try to tell the truth: No oath can make up for a flawed memory. As a juror, I would almost certainly give less weight to oaths than to the consistency and plausibility of the claims themselves. Possibly, also to perceived credibility, impartiality, whatnot of the witness. (My reservations arising from the knowledge that it is very easy to misjudge people, especially when having no individual base-line for comparison, and the relatively weak correlation between apparent confidence and e.g. being truthful or being factually right, between apparent and actual friendliness, etc.)

*Indeed, in my impression, the taking of oaths is a legacy from a time where trials needed to be settled mostly through the credibility of the involved parties and their witnesses, due to factors like a complete absence of forensic science, the need to wait for months until a traveling court came by, whatnot. (As an aside, with the growing means of manipulating evidence and the near uselessness of digital evidence, we might eventually move back in this direction.)

A way to partially resolve these issues, without allowing lying, is to strictly forbid a certain type of question (e.g. “Did you shoot him?”), and, going by TV, this might actually partially be the case in the U.S. However, I am skeptical as to whether this would allow the same degree of protection.

As an aside, some of the above discussions and [2] also point to why I strongly believe in statutes of limitation*, even for e.g. murder, and that the common trend to increase or abolish them is a sign of barbarism, not civilization: To, say, put someone in court for a murder that took place fifty years earlier more-or-less guarantees that memories will have been distorted or lost—for instance, what accused can say what he did at a certain day fifty years earlier, let alone at what time. Outside of the main topic, it also severely increases the risk of physical proof being destroyed or contaminated, alibis and other witnesses dying, etc.—usually in a manner that one-sidedly favors the prosecution, which could document evidence and testimony shortly after the murder, while the innocently** accused might not even have heard of the event until said fifty years later and might now have to drum up a defense out of nothing. For sufficiently young perpetrators (who are guilty) relative the time passed, we might also have to consider factors like changes as a person over the intervening time—is it really right that a ninety-something is dragged into court because he served in a Nazi extermination camp when he was twenty? At such extremes, it seems less like justice to me and more like vengeance—or even abuse of the justice system for political gains.

*Exactly what limits for what crimes is a too big question for this post, with the need to carefully judge the severity of the crime, the options for the investigation, chance of new evidence, whatnot, vs. fairness towards the suspect. For murder, I could imagine that we land somewhere between five and twenty years, but where in that wide interval would be pure guesswork. (A deeper analysis would also need to consider the possibility of waiting periods and extensions, and possibly other exceptions to a plain limit.)

**Obviously, laws around statutes of limitations must accommodate the presumption of innocence. The common blanket reasoning that there should be no statutes of limitations, to ensure that no guilty party will go unpunished, is not compatible with this principle. Generally, many of the problems with debates around law enforcement and the justice system, including e.g. surveillance, go back to a too great focus on “getting the bad guy” and too little regard for the danger of getting the innocent instead. (As is likely clear from my recent posts, I am very aware of that danger.)

Written by michaeleriksson

May 11, 2018 at 11:45 am